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Chen Yuansen stated that Mao Tse-tung, often depicted with an traditional Chinese oil-paper umbrella in the early portraits, might have used the umbrella as a secret society signal in his tour of the countryside where he organized peasants into over twenty so-called 'peasant associations', a form of organization that was built upon the experiences of secret societies.Mao Tse-tung was said to have launched the movement of "stopping the landlords from exporting of the grains and forcing the landlords into disposal of the grains to the local peasants at the discounted price".In April, Chiang Kai-shek and Hu Hanmin's Nanking Government, i.e., the right wing, first initiated the purge of the communists on the ground that the CCP had been pushing through the anti-imperialism agenda, intending to attack the foreign settlements to provoke a war between China and the foreign powers, organizing the armed workers' patrolling forces in Shanghai, acting as proxy of the USSR, and taking over control of the KMT government.In July, Wang Jingwei's Wuhan Government (i.e., the KMT leftists) announced the separation of the KMT and the CCP under the pressure of the Nanking's government as well as its internal opposition to the CCP's bloody land revolution in the Hunan-Hubei Provinces.Per Harold Isaacs, "the peasants had also begun to stir and group themselves into organizations before the revived Kuomintang made its appearance in 1924.The modern Chinese peasant movement was cradled in Haifeng, in the East River districts of Kwangtung, by Peng Pai, one of the most appealing figures of the Chinese revolution." Peng Pai, similar to Mao, was born in a landlord's family.Eight villages in the Xiaoshan-Shaoxing area had imitated Yaqian in setting up the peasant associations within one month, which had a full set of the Yaqian peasant association declaration and guidelines transcribed. See Keith Schoppa's "", Berkeley, 1995.) Exploiting the land & peasant problems of China, Mao Tse-tung's Land Revolution (i.e., the Peasant Revolution or Agrarian Revolution), which was supposed to strive for the happiness of the masses of people, had inflicted only pains onto the Chinese peasants and enslaved the Chinese peasants into a caste of uneducated, docile and poverty-stricken people who had been deprived of both their land and their right to leave the land.The government cracked down on the peasants' movement for its demands like the "reduction in land rents". This caste society was covered in another section of this website, where this webmaster discussed the deprivation of land with the formation of 'agricultural cooperatives' three years after the victory of the communist revolution.
Peng Pai had at one time claimed that the communist law would be simply the execution of landlords once they were caught.
By late July of 1927, the CCP endorsed the armed rebellion which led to the August 1st Nanchang Mutiny.
On August 7th, the two new Comintern representatives, who had come to replace Borodin and Roy, hosted the August 7th CCP's plenary session and officially declared the start of the armed rebellion and land revolution (which was earlier suppressed by Borodin and Wang Jingwei for sake of appeasing the Wuhan military officials).
Mao Tse-tung, being forced to abandon his propaganda ministry post, then worked as director or president of the "Peasant Movement Lecture and Practice School" and hosted the 6th Session for activists of the peasant movements on May 3rd of 1926.
(Peng Pai was responsible for organizing five training sessions of activists prior to that.) In the Hunan-Hubei provinces, the communists organized the massive worker and peasant movements.